DEFRA defines waste as “any substance or object that the holder discards, or intends or is required to discard”. This means that when a product has no further use, it is then considered waste. When we put this into perspective, the number of items that end up in landfill as “waste”, may have a further use, but it is seen as more convenient to throw it away. Think of old mobile phones which have been discarded rather than repaired or refurbished.
It is important that we look at how we can change our ways rather than sticking to what we know, so that we can improve our day-to-day sustainability actions.
The principle of the waste hierarchy is to prioritise preferred methods for waste management, with priority given to the most “environmentally friendly” waste management options.
Prevention is given top priority which ultimately refers to not creating waste in the first place. If conditions are ideal, this is the clear best option. If waste must be produced, the waste hierarchy gives priority to re-use, where we keep the waste in circulation while retaining its original purpose and therefore contributing to and creating a circular economy. Following this is recycling, where the waste can be turned / created into a new product and continue its life.
When waste cannot be recycled, recovery is the next option, where value can be extracted from the waste – an example of this can be through energy recovery (creating energy through the burning or pyrolysis of waste). The least preferred option is disposal through landfill.
The benefits associated with the waste hierarchy (and a circular economy) include:
The UK generated approximately 222.2 million tonnes of waste in 2018* with the construction, demolition and excavation sectors being the highest generators, accounting for approximately 62% of total UK waste.
The most common waste treatment type in 2018 was ‘recycling and recovery’ which accounted for approximately 50.4% of waste. However, landfill still accounted for 23.6% of waste disposal.
Designing out waste
The focus within most businesses should be to prevent waste. Designing out waste is the most effective action that can be taken to eliminate waste and includes designing for better waste and resource efficiency and designing with the whole life cycle of a product in mind.
When designing a product, we should consider:
In the design phase of a project such as construction of a building, materials with lower environmental impacts can be chosen. For example if you were looking to reduce waste this can include avoiding single use plastics in tools and packaging, increasing the longevity of products, tools and plant equipment and reducing surplus procurement and the use of construction materials. Best practice measures during design phases can reduce the overall waste production of a project and a business from the outset.
Products and projects can be designed with a circular economy mindset which involves reducing the need for virgin materials at the beginning, increasing the longevity of an item, allowing for maintenance and repair and designing for deconstruction, re-use and recycling at the end of the products’ life.
This forms the principles of a circular economy, where products are used again and again, for as long as possible in a way that maximises their intended use and minimises waste. Adopting a circular economy approach will allow us to step away from a ‘linear approach’ of take – make – dispose which humans have adopted, which ultimately ends up with products in landfills.
A circular economy is most effective when implemented by all manufacturers and not just individuals and by focusing on this approach, waste can be eliminated before it is produced.
Diagram source: WRAP
*Note: Where possible, the most up to date data has been taken from DEFRA – in some cases this is 2018.
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